The Rationale Underlying the CDDQ Taxonomy

Gati, Krausz & Osipow (1996)


Making a career decision is a step everyone must take. While some people make such decisions easily and with no apparent difficulties, many individuals face difficulties in making their career decisions. To help clients who encounter difficulties in their career decision-making process, it is necessary to locate and identify their specific areas of difficulty.


The taxonomy of career decision-making difficulties used in the CDDQ-feedback is based on decision-making and information-processing theories. We define any deviation from the ideal career decision-making process (i.e., the process carried out by the ideal career decision maker; see below) as a difficulty that may lead to indecision or a less than optimal choice. In the next section we present the proposed taxonomy. Then we present information about the reliability and validity of the CDDQ. Finally we present possible uses of the CDDQ in counseling and research.

Assumptions underlying the Proposed Taxonomy



  • An ideal career decision maker is a person who is:
    - aware of the need to make a career decision and willing to reach such a decision.
    - capable of making the decision properly (that is, using a systematic process to reach the decision most compatible with his or her goals)
  • Any deviation from the ideal career decision maker entails difficulties that may impair or impede the career decision-making process
  • Career decision-making difficulties can be classified into distinct categories, according to: 
    - the time at which they arise (before or during actual engagement in the career decision-making process)
    - the source of difficulty (cognitive or affective)    
    - the impact of the difficulty on the decision (blocks the process or leads to a less than optimal decision)
    - the type of intervention required to overcome the difficulty 
  • Indecision may result from a single difficulty or a combination of difficulties
  • Each individualís difficulties may belong to one category or a number of categories



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